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Furthermore, negotiation of meaning may result in modified interaction (Ellis, Tanaka, & Yamazaki, 1994; Pica, 1994; Smith, 2004), which ostensibly optimizes second language acquisition (SLA; Ellis et al., Gass, 1997).Modified interaction, as defined by Long (1983), is partly accomplished through the conversational repair moves of negotiation of meaning, including utterances such as clarification requests, comprehension checks, and incorporations in learners' speech.ABSTRACT Despite the expanded use of the Internet for language learning and practice, little attention if any has been given to the quality of interaction among English L2 speakers in conversational text or voice chat rooms.This study explored the patterns of repair moves in synchronous non-native speaker (NNS) text chat rooms in comparison to voice chat rooms on the Internet.

Online Language Learning and Interaction In the past decade, opportunities for language learning have evolved beyond the limits of time and place that are inherent to face-to-face interaction (Blake, 2000).The following questions were posed: (a) Which types of repair moves occur in text and voice chats; and (b) what are the differences, if any, between the repair moves in text chats and voice chats when time is held constant?Repair moves made by anonymous NNSs in 10, 5-minute, synchronous chat room sessions (5 text-chat sessions, 5 voice-chat sessions) were counted and analyzed using chi-square with alpha set at .05.Varonis and Gass (1985) discovered a greater degree of repair work in conversations between NNSs of diverse backgrounds and English language proficiency, as compared to conversations held by control groups of NS-NNS and NS-NS.Van Lier and Matsuo (2000) corroborated similar findings in three NNS conversations, and both studies found that in conversations between NNSs of similar proficiency and backgrounds, repair moves were used less often.

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Lyster (1998) posited that NNSs pay attention and modify grammatical form and proceduralize their language competence during modified negotiation.

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